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Kustodiya ng batang edad 7 pababa

ni Atty. Persida Rueda-Acosta - @Magtanong Kay Attorney | April 07, 2021



Dear Chief Acosta,

Pinipilit ipatupad ng ex-husband ko na foreigner ang aming naging kasunduan sa Amerika, sa hukuman dito sa Pilipinas, na sa kanya dapat mapunta ang kustodiya ng aming anak na ngayon dalawang taong gulang pa lamang. Hindi kakayanin ng aking puso ang mawalay sa aking baby kahit pa napilitan akong pumirma sa aming kasunduan sa Amerika para kami lamang ay lubusan nang maghiwalay. Mayroon ba akong laban sa ating batas? – Moira


Dear Moira,

Para sa inyong kaalaman, ipinabatid ng ating Kataas-taasang Hukuman sa kasong Herald Dacasin vs. Sharon Dacasin (G.R. No. 168175, February 5, 2010, Ponente: Honorable former Associate Justice Antonio T. Carpio) ang sumusunod:


“In this jurisdiction, parties to a contract are free to stipulate the terms of agreement subject to the minimum ban on stipulations contrary to law, morals, good customs, public order, or public policy. Otherwise, the contract is denied legal existence, deemed "inexistent and void from the beginning." For lack of relevant stipulation in the Agreement, these and other ancillary Philippine substantive law serve as default parameters to test the validity of the Agreement’s joint child custody stipulations.


At the time the parties executed the Agreement on 28 January 2002, two facts are undisputed: (1) Stephanie was under seven years old (having been born on 21 September 1995); and (2) petitioner and respondent were no longer married under the laws of the United States because of the divorce decree. The relevant Philippine law on child custody for spouses separated in fact or in law (under the second paragraph of Article 213 of the Family Code) is also undisputed: “no child under seven years of age shall be separated from the mother x x x.” (This statutory awarding of sole parental custody to the mother is mandatory, grounded on sound policy consideration, subject only to a narrow exception not alleged to obtain here.) Clearly then, the Agreement’s object to establish a post-divorce joint custody regime between respondent and petitioner over their child under seven years old contravenes Philippine law.


The Agreement is not only void ab initio for being contrary to law, it has also been repudiated by the mother when she refused to allow joint custody by the father. The Agreement would be valid if the spouses have not divorced or separated because the law provides for joint parental authority when spouses live together. However, upon separation of the spouses, the mother takes sole custody under the law if the child is below seven years old and any agreement to the contrary is void.(Binigyang-diin).


Samakatwid, kung kayo ay ganap nang diborsiyada sa inyong banyagang asawa at ang edad ng inyong anak ay mababa sa pitong (7) taon, nararapat lamang na manatili sa inyo ang kustodiya ng bata, ayon sa katuwirang nabanggit. Hindi maaaring payagan ng ating Hukuman ang inyong naging kasunduan, kung ito ay maituturing na labag sa batas o public policy, alinsunod sa kasong nabanggit.


Sana ay nabigyan namin ng linaw ang inyong katanungan. Ang payong aming ibinigay ay base lamang sa impormasyon na inyong inilahad at maaaring magbago kung mababawasan o madaragdagan ang mga detalye ng inyong salaysay.


Maraming salamat sa inyong patuloy na pagtitiwala.

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